A number of leading universities and research institutes across the globe are conducting a large number of clinical studies on TMS to treat various physical and mental diseases, including anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, irritable bowel syndrome, anorexia or bulimia, migraine, aphasia, tinnitus, Parkinson’s disease and so on. Clinical application research has achieved satisfactory results. The following are some of the physical and mental indications that are still in the clinical validation phase and can possibly be treated with TMS.

Neuropathic Pain


In terms of treating neuropathic pain, drug therapy nowadays is relatively ineffective. Traditional analgesics such as paracetamol or some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not effective in relieving pain caused by dysfunctions of the nervous system.

Some psychiatrists have suggested using some psychiatric drugs, such as tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) or antiepileptics in relieving neuropathic pain. Although in some cases, these drugs appeared to be more effective than traditional analgesics, these psychiatric drugs bring a lot of side effects at the same time.  Therefore, using psychiatric drugs to treat neuropathic pain is not widely adopted in the United States and Europe.



For neuropathic pain that cannot be relieved by drugs, TMS can be a possible option. TMS  is an effective and non-invasive technique to treat a variety of neurological diseases.

By combining TMS with 3D brain imaging, the navigation system can accurately identify the target areas of the motor cortex, which allows precise stimulation. TMS can play a significant analgesic effect This is helpful in relieving chronic neuropathic pain.



Haanpää, M. & Treede, R.D. (2010). Diagnosis and classification of neuropathic pain. Pain: Clinical Updates,18(7).

Lefaucheur, J.P. et al. (2014). Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Clin Neurophysiol, 125(11):2150-206.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25034472

Nurmikko,T. et al.(2016). Motor Cortex Reorganization and Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Pain-A Methodological Study. Neuromodulation,19(7):669-678.

Treede, R.D., Jensen, T.S., Campbell. J.N., Cruccu, G., Dostrovsky, J.O., Griffin, J.W., Hansson, P., Hughes, R.,Nurmikko, T.,& Serra J.(2008). Neuropathic pain: redefinition and a grading system for clinical and research purposes. Neurology,70,1630–5.


Ahdab R, Lefaucheur JP 2nd International Symposium on Navigated Brain Stimulation in Neurosurgery Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Organizer) 2011 May; 34-36

Mylius V, Lefaucheur JP 3rd International Symposium on Navigated Brain Stimulation in Neurosurgery Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Organizer) 2012 May; 27-29

Nurmikko TJ, Sacco P  3rd International Symposium on Navigated Brain Stimulation in Neurosurgery Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Organizer) 2012 May; 23-26

Nurmikko TJ, Sacco P  5th International Symposium on Navigated Brain Stimulation in Neurosurgery Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Organizer) 2014 June; 32-36


Stroke Rehabilitation

Stroke is a type of cerebrovascular disease. Due to the infarction or bleeding of blood vessels in the brain, the brain tissue fails to get adequate oxygen and nutrients in time. The affected nerve cells are therefore permanently damaged, which in turn leads to various dysfunctions in body parts.  

Symptoms of stroke may vary depending on the location and extent of damage to the brain, but the general symptoms are as follows:


  • Weakness or numbness of the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body
  • Loss of vision or dimming (like a curtain falling) in one or both eyes
  • Loss of speech, difficulty in talking and swallowing
  • Loss of balance or inability in walking
  • Incontinence 

Complications include: 

  • Limb motor dysfunction
  • Limb sensory dysfunction
  • Language disability
  • Dysphagia, etc.



Patients suffering from stroke experience enormous difficulties in daily living. Their cognitive and motor functions are greatly inhibited. Studies have shown that even if the stroke patient receives timely emergency treatment, there will still be 15% to 30% of physical disabilities.

At present, patients with stroke have only relied on physiotherapy for rehabilitation, but it has failed to address the main cause of physical disability – the impairments in patients’ brains.

In view of this, TMS, which is a non-invasive technology that can directly stimulate the brain and modulate neuroactivities, is currently the focus of clinical research to assist patients with stroke rehabilitation.



TMS can regulate the cortical excitability of the cerebral cortex. This technology can selectively enhance or inhibit the function of specific regions of the brain to achieve regulation of brain function and neuroplasticity, thereby improving stroke patients’ cognitive and motor functioning. 

In summary, clinical research finds that TMS can:

  • Improve the excitability of the damaged part of the brain, accelerating the recovery time of the injury site
  • Inhibit the non-injury parts of the brain, giving the injured area a better chance of repair
  • Inhibit the non-injury sites in the brain, enhancing the response rate in patients with stroke

*Declaration: The application of TMS to stroke rehab is still experimental. Although some clinical studies have achieved positive results, this clinical application has not yet obtained FDA approval and CE mark.


Irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome, or what is commonly referred to as “intestinal sensitivity” refers to intestinal dysfunction, which causes gastrointestinal motility to become uncoordinated.

The symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome include:

  • Stomachache
  • Constipation
  • Abdominal flatulence
  • Diarrhea
  • Unclear faeces


To date, the medical field still does not have a clear understanding of the pathogenic causes of irritable bowel, but more and more medical studies have shown that functional gastrointestinal diseases are closely related to emotional diseases.

The irritable bowel condition is also strongly related to the patient’s mood and stress. In summary, here are a few factors that are prone to cause illness:

  • Neurotic and anxious disposition
  • Exposure to long-term pressure
  • Bad eating habits
  • Menstruation
  • Emotional instability



Although the clinical application of TMS for direct treatment of irritable bowel syndrome is still experimental, recent clinical studies have found that brain magnetic stimulation is effective in improving chronic pain in patients with rectal hypersensitivity.

In addition, gastrointestinal sensitivity is found to be closely related to anxiety and stress. TMS has a significant effect on relieving anxiety. Therefore, patients with long-term gastrointestinal problems can seek their doctors for professional advice regarding using TMS as a possible treatment. 



Melchior, C., Gourcerol, G., Chastan, N., Verin, E., Menard, J.F., Ducrotte, P., Leroi, A.M. (2013). Effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation on rectal sensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Colorectal Disease, 16(3), 104-111.

*Declaration: The application of TMS to Tinnitus is still experimental. Although some clinical studies have achieved positive results, this clinical application has not yet obtained FDA approval and CE mark.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, abbreviated as ADHD.

ADHD is one of the common brain development disorders. The cause of this condition has not yet been determined, but studies have shown that the disease is related to factors such as family heredity and neuroactivity. At the same time, genes and different living conditions can also affect the severity of the disease. ADHD is not a rare condition, but the incidence may have been underestimated. Most of the symptoms appear in childhood and continue into adulthood.

Symptoms of ADHD include:

  • Self-focused behavior
  • Interrupting others
  • Trouble waiting their turn
  • Fidgeting
  • Problems playing quietly and properly
  • Unfinished tasks
  • Lack of focus
  • Throwing Tantrum


Medication (such as stimulants) is the traditional treatment of ADHD. It is also the first line of treatment. However, the side effects brought by stimulants concern many parents. In addition to medical treatment, non-pharmacological treatments, for instance, cognitive behavioral therapy.

In many clinical studies, studies have shown that TMS is a therapeutic alternative to ADHD. TMS is also believed to help increase understanding of the pathophysiology of ADHD. In recent years, due to the high safety of TMS and its non-invasive feature, more and more clinical medical research has also used TMS as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. Clinical studies have found that TMS is a technique which can effectively target and treat neurological dysfunction found in ADHD patients.

Moreover, TMS has been rated as safe for children over two years of age, with good tolerance and safety. There are still several large-scale TMS studies on ADHD in various parts of the world. There will be more research data to support the potential use of TMS in ADHD.



Rubio, B., Boes, A., Laganiere, S., Rotenberg, A., Jeurissen, D.,& Pascual-Leone, A.(2016). Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Pediatric ADHD: A Review. J Child Neurol, 31(6), 784-796.

Weaver, L., Rostain, A.L., Mace, W., Akhtar, U., Moss, E.,& O’Reardon, J.P. (2012). Transcranial Magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescents and young adults: a pilot study. J ECT, 28(2), 98-103.


*Declaration: The application of TMS to ADHD is still experimental. Although some clinical studies have achieved positive results, this clinical application has not yet obtained FDA approval and CE mark.


Tinnitus is the perception of noise or ringing in the ears. Tinnitus is not a disease itself — it’s a symptom of an underlying condition, such as age-related hearing loss, ear injury or a circulatory system disorder.

The most common causes of tinnitus include ear infections, ear water imbalance, noise-induced hearing loss, psychological stress such as anxiety and restlessness, and head injury.

If patients delay getting medical advice at an early stage, the tinnitus will continue, which will eventually cause sleep disorders, affect the patient’s concentration, daily functioning and emotions in the long run.




TMS can suppress the excitatory activity of neurons by stimulating the “underactive-hypoactive areas” of the auditory cortex. This can reduce the hyperactivity of the brain region, thereby regulating the hearing of patients.

Clinical studies have also found that patients with tinnitus receive 10-day TMS treatment, and more than half of the patients who participated in the study indicated relief of symptoms up to 6 months.

Some participants in the study expressed their it was their first time experiencing symptom relief over the years. Therefore, TMS can be a viable treatment option for patients who have been suffering from tinnitus for a long time.


Folmer RL, Theodoroff SM, Casiana L, Shi Y, Griest S, Vachhani J. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Treatment for Chronic Tinnitus:A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.2015;141(8):716–722.

Ridder, D. D., Song, J., & Vanneste, S. (2013). Frontal Cortex TMS for Tinnitus. Brain Stimulation,6(3), 355-362. doi:10.1016/j.brs.2012.07.002

Ridder, D. D., & Vanneste, S. (2011). Auditory Cortex Stimulation for Tinnitus. Textbook of Tinnitus,717-726. doi:10.1007/978-1-60761-145-5_90


*Declaration: The application of TMS to Tinnitus is still experimental. Although some clinical studies have achieved positive results, this clinical application has not yet obtained FDA approval and CE mark.

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD) is the conclusive name of a range of neurodevelopmental symptoms related to autism. The diagnosis depends on the severity of the symptoms patients exhibits. Currently, Asperger’s Syndrome, generalized developmental disorder (PDD-NOS) and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder are relatively common disorders included in the autism spectrum.

 Common Symptoms of Autism are:

  • Making little or inconsistent eye contact
  • Tending not to look at or listen to people
  • Rarely sharing enjoyment of objects or activities by pointing or showing things to others
  • Repeating certain behaviors or having unusual behaviors. For example, repeating words or phrases, a behavior called echolalia
  • Having a lasting intense interest in certain topics, such as numbers, details, or facts
  • Having overly focused interests, such as with moving objects or parts of objects
  • Getting upset by slight changes in a routine




Clinical studies have pointed out that autism is associated with abnormal brain development and genetic factors. Although the exact cause remains unclear, clinical data suggested that autism may be related to excitability and plasticity of the cerebral cortex. Therefore, TMS can be used to regulate the function of the cerebral cortex in a non-invasive manner.

In recent years, many clinical treatment centers around the world have begun to understand the etiology of autism through TMS. The research result has suggested that TMS has the potential to be the clinical treatment of ASD.


Markram, H., Rinaldi, T., &Markram, K. (2007). The intense world syndrome–an alternative hypothesis for autism. Frontiers in Neuroscience,1(1),77–96.

Obeman, L.M., Rotenberg, A., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2015). Use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Autism Dev Disord, 45(2), 524-536.

Rubenstein, J.L., & Merzenich, M.M. (2003). Model of autism: increased ratio of excitation/inhibition in key neural systems. Genes, Brain, and Behavior,2(5),255–267.

*Declaration: The application of TMS to Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD) is still experimental. Although some clinical studies have achieved positive results, this clinical application has not yet obtained FDA approval and CE mark.